Motor fuel is a petroleum product used to provide power for internal combustion engines. Its share in refined products is more than 65% of refined products. Motor fuel consists of various components, including the base part and special additives (antiknock, anticorrosive, etc.)
Classification of motor fuel classification of motor fuel is based on a number of criteria related to the use of fuels, the method of production and qualitative characteristics.
1. By the method of obtaining motor fuel can be:
Distillates include all types of gasolines, kerosene, gasoil and light diesel fuels. These oil products are obtained by fractional distillation – evaporation of light fractions of oil and condensation of its vapours.
Residual fuel is solar oil and residual oil (masut). They are produced by distillation of heavy oil fractions at very high temperatures.
2. According to the principle of working of the engine, there are the following types of motor fuel:
- Carburation fuel
- Diesel fuel
- Jet fuel
Each type of fuel has its quality indicators, regulated by GOST.
2.1. Carburation fuel
These are gasolines – automotive and jet. They are used in carburetor internal combustion engines (ICE), based on spark ignition of fuel.
The fractional composition of gasoline is due to their volatility at all stages of the engine work: start-up, warm-up, regime change. Gasoline does not have a precise boiling point; it evaporates at 32 – 200 ° C.
Gasoline vapours, when combined with air, form explosive mixtures, therefore the main characteristic of carburettor fuel is detonation resistance – the ability of a fuel to withstand self-ignition when pressure rises.
2.2. Diesel fuel
Diesel fuel is used as an energy source for diesel engines for land, sea and river vessels. Density of diesel fuel is 0.80 – 0.89 g/sm3. Diesel fuel is not ignited forcibly, but it ignites due to pressure and high temperature of air. High ash content influences on formation of carbon deposits in the engine, so its content in diesel fuel is limited to 0.01%
By the field of application diesel fuels are divvied into:
1) Marine low viscosity fuel
2) Diesel fuel for heavy vehicles (locomotives, construction, military and agricultural equipment).
3) Diesel fuel for light-duty vehicles
Marine low viscosity is used in engines of sea and river vessels. It is simpler and more effective to produce than diesel fuel, so its price is lower.
On the base of sulfur content, the fuel oil is divided into sulfureous and low-sulfur.
1) low-sulfur motor fuel (TMLM brand),
2) sulfurous fuel.
TMML (motor fuel with low sulfur content) is a winter version of marine low viscosity fuel, which shows the best performance at low temperatures.
TMML is more popular than the sulfurous fuel due to the constant increase of environmental requirements. Sulfur exhausts cause irreparable damage to the environment, so international standards on sulfur content are constantly increasing.
2.3. Jet fuel
Jet fuel is used in motor of jet airplanes and rockets. Its share in the amount oil products is about 5%. These are single-component fuels that are completely burned without smoke and carbon deposits. Requirements for jet fuel are based on the rigid parameters of the engine: they do not allow the content of water, hydrogen sulphide, acids, alkalis and solid particles.