Natural gas is close in origin to oil and is often its companion in the production fields. There, it either dissolves in oil, or accumulates in the upper part of the rock and forms a “gas cap”. The main component of gas deposits is methane (85-95%) with impurities of heavier hydrocarbons – propane, butane, ethane.
Active use and sale of gas have been observed only in recent decades, and before the Second World War, gas, associated with oil production, was an undesirable component of the deposits and was burned. Such careless attitude to the useful product was caused by the complexity of transportation and use and high explosiveness.
Today, to facilitate storage and transportation, the gas is artificially liquefied, that is, compressed and cooled to -160 ° C, while its volume decreases to 600 times. Liquefied gas is a colorless liquid without a smell, not combustible and not toxic. During evaporation liquefied natural gas returns to a gaseous state, suitable for use.
Natural gas has no color and smell and is considered to be one of the cleanest and safest types of fuel. In the process of combustion, it decomposes into water and carbon dioxide, leaving no ash and soot unlike coal and oil.
Delivery of gas is performed by main pipelines, from which it passes through gas distribution points and goes to residential buildings. The cost of gas is lower than the cost of oil and its derivatives, that is why gas is widely used in various areas of household.
Application of gas
1. Heating. The main sphere of the main gas application is the heating of residential houses and feeding of gas stoves. Here the gas, which is 90% methane. For the heating of isolated residential houses without a central gas pipeline, liquefied propane-butane is used, which comes from the gasholder. It is equal to methane by its main characteristics and has a higher calorific value. The cost of liquefied gas is slightly higher, but this pays off with its lower consumption.
2. Fuel. Propane-butane gas is used as a fuel for cars with a gas-fuel system. The price for propane-butane is lower than for gasoline and diesel, and this type of fuel is much more environmentally friendly. In addition to cars, gas is used as fuel in boiling rooms and CHP.
3. Raw materials. In the chemical industry, gas acts as a raw material for the production of organic substances. The sphere of gas application is constantly expanding, and new production technologies constantly reduce the negative consequences of its use.