Oils and lubricants are lubricating substances used in automotive and other types of machinery, industry and household to reduce the friction of moving parts and reduce surface wear. Base oils and lubricants obtained as a result of oil refining are called mineral oils.
Oils are liquid lubricants, which, depending on the purpose and conditions of use, are divided into several types:
1. Engine oil. It is used in the engines of vehicles (aircraft, automobile, jet) to reduce the wear of machinery and power losses in friction. At the same time, engine oil for the engine acts as a cooling agent.
2. Transmission oil. It is used in gearboxes, steering parts, hydraulic drives and other complex systems.
3. Industrial oil. Lubricates bearings and other paired parts with friction on machine tools and other industrial equipment. It is also used as an operating fluid.
4. Hydraulic oil. It is used as an operating fluid for proper operation of hydraulic systems.
5. Compressor oil. Lubricates parts of refrigeration systems, compressor pistons, etc. The main characteristics of motor and other types of oils, important for consumer properties: viscosity, density, lubricity (oiliness), pour point and flash point. It is often a necessity to buy engine oil, as well as transmission oil for owners of private cars, so these types of oils are most common in the market.
Lubricants are plastic materials that reduce friction and increase the service life of machinery. When heated, they come from an unctuosity state into a liquid state.
Classification of lubricants by application:
- antifriction – reduces friction and wear of mechanisms;
- rope lubricant – lubricates metal ropes;
- protective (conservation) – prevents corrosion of metals;
- sealing – seals gas valves, threaded joints, etc.
The technology of plastic lubricants’ production is much more complicated than of oils, because of the need to obtain a stable consistency and specified properties.